“ The Defense Investigators Dilemma”

William A. Monroe, CCDI, CFSI, CFI-FTER
Faculty Advisory Board Distinguished Member CDITC

I commonly field and respond to questions (Most often from Attorneys) like “Explain what you do as a defense investigator that my paralegal or legal assistant cannot do”? Unfortunately, this is a seldom discussed elephant in the room amongst professionals in my field. Speaking frankly and honestly, this discussion amongst attorney clients, and other investigators, can sometimes become more of an adversarial debate that often detracts from the purpose and goal of the discussion, and is a constant challenge in investigative defense work.

How many times have you as a criminal attorney hired a private investigator who has charged you an exorbitant retainer fee that you have to chase for information continually? Or, the investigator that fails to be honest with you from the onset and discuss upfront what their areas of expertise are? How about the investigator (which is most common) that you feel the need to micro-manage because you have been burned in the past by investigators who lack the skill required to conduct a competent defense investigation?

Another challenging situation for the defense investigator in private practice is an attorney waiting until the last minute to hire a competent, qualified professional investigator to conduct a defense investigation. In many situations, we, as investigators, contribute to those problems, opinions, and assumptions ourselves. Just as the client has the right to a skilled attorney, who is trained, educated, and experienced in defense, so too, they are entitled to a qualified criminal defense investigator explicitly trained in the art and science of defense investigation.

I speak to attorneys and investigators both in private practice and those who work in the area of indigent defense for state and federal public defenders offices across the country regularly. In most cases, the honest ones will tell you; they instead prefer to investigate themselves (meaning their paralegals or office staff) and bill for investigation and take their chances.

When confronted by these situations, my answer is always straightforward:

Your paralegal or legal assistant cannot do what I do, nor do they have the training, education, experience, and expertise that I possess as a defense investigator. Most importantly, you cannot put yourself or your paralegal on the stand to provide expert testimony on defense investigative methodology, process, or philosophy.

Criminal investigation and defense investigation are two very different things with very different goals, methodology, and philosophy. I am required to be licensed in California to do what I do as a defense investigator. The fact that I maintain a private investigator’s license does not solely qualify me to conduct defense investigations properly, which is a common misconception amongst attorneys and private investigators in the business. The fact that a private investigator has spent 20 years in law enforcement as a homicide investigator does not necessarily qualify them to conduct defense investigations. The same applies to a paralegal or legal assistant for that matter.

Can an attorney that has spent his or her career focused on family law, for example, handle a criminal defense case. Sure, I would imagine they could. However, Is that the attorney you want to entrust your money, freedom, and the rest of your life to when accused of a crime? The same questions should apply to the investigator you hire to investigate your cases. There are many great private investigators out there, and some do fantastic work for their clients. However, only a small percentage of investigators are qualified to be called “Defense Investigators.”

As to the investigator, every private investigator is not a defense investigator, no matter what they call themselves, as difficult as that may be for some to swallow. The specialty field of defense investigation encompasses the entire investigative area of study. No one is an expert in every discipline there is. No matter what an investigator may tell you or advertise. It is impossible and is, in large part, the reason private attorneys cite that discourages them from the required use of an investigator in criminal cases. The statement “You get what you pay for “is often used by investigators trying to justify inadequacy in their work (or lack thereof).

I preface my next comments as I do with every case from the onset and state that I am not an attorney, nor do I profess to be. I cannot and do not provide legal advice. Attorneys litigate I investigate. I am a criminologist, an expert in criminal defense investigation, and the preparation and presentation of accurate facts. I am expertly trained in the component method of defense investigation. I am a private practitioner and a licensed California professional investigator and assist counsel in the preparation of civil and criminal cases for litigation through investigation.

I have an undergraduate degree in Police Science, a bachelor’s degree in Social and Criminal Justice, A graduate degree in Criminal Justice with a field-specific concentration in forensics. I am currently a first-year doctoral student pursuing my doctorate in psychology in criminology with a specific focus in justice studies. I have 21 years of law enforcement and security experience performing a multitude of duties and responsibilities in those fields.

I have provided expert opinion in both state and federal court proceedings regarding police procedure and use of force, as well as K-9 search and seizure. I am a Board Certified Criminal Defense Investigator (CCDI), A Board Certified Forensic Science Investigator (CFSI), and a Board Certified Forensic Interviewer trained in Forensic Testimonial Evidence Recovery (CFI-FTER). I serve on the Faculty and Advisory Board as a distinguished member and teach yearly at the National Defense Investigators Academy for the Criminal Defense Investigation Training Council (CDITC).

The first obstacle that I had to overcome once I decided to focus specifically on defense investigation was to forget everything I learned as a cop over 21 years. I am not purporting that I do not draw upon that knowledge and experience, but first and foremost, I’m a defense investigator. It is the only thing that I do.

As a defense investigator, I understand that every criminal case does not require a complete, extensive investigation. However, every situation demands a Forensic Investigative Case Review And Analysis (FICRA), provided by a competent defense investigator who is trained specifically in defense investigation. If you do not know what that is, ask your investigator if they do. You may be surprised by the response.

A Forensic Investigative Case Review and Analysis (FICRA), is a comprehensive forensic examination of the prosecution’s evidence that can reveal flaws, inconsistencies, errors, and omissions in a case. It consists of a line-by-line, page-by-page, forensic examination of all the discovery provided to the defense by the prosecution. It should be the very first thing that your investigator does in every one of your cases. A FICRA, adequately conducted from the onset of a case, provides you the factual information you need to determine a defense strategy. Further, It should not cost you half of your retainer to have completed.

You should expect and receive, (in most cases within 24-72 hours), dependent upon the volume of discovery and complexity of the case, a detailed attorney work product from your investigator. It should provide you with a documented analysis identifying inconsistencies, discrepancies, errors, omissions, and leads to be pursued during the process of investigation. If you are not getting that from them every time, you should be asking your investigator why.

Finally, your relationship with an investigator should be like all of the other relationships you have in your profession. You should be able to communicate, trust, respect, and expect honest, lawful, ethical, productive, professional behavior and effort in every case to prevent these dilemmas both for attorneys and the investigators that they use.

Forensic Case Review and Analysis

W.A. Monroe & Associates provides our attorney clients with a comprehensive Forensic Case Review and Analysis within 24 to 72 hours after receiving your case information and discovery. We identify inconsistencies, discrepancies, errors, omissions, and leads to be pursued based on police reports, arrest affidavits, statements, evidence lists, etc. 

While every criminal defense case does not require a criminal defense investigation, all of your cases can benefit from our process of case review and analysis, to assist in deciding which cases warrant further professional investigation, to what extent, and which do not.  

Our process facilitates the identification of crucial facts, cross-contamination, inconsistencies, errors, omissions, investigative leads, and alternative theories that tend to be buried and lost within the details of a narrative reporting style. We will identify leads and develop a lead tracking system of “incriminating facts” and “exculpatory facts”, “mitigators” and/or “aggravators”, and construct a timeline of events. We will generate a cast of characters and witnesses and compile them into the initial Forensic Case Review And Analysis report, allowing our client to make every investigative effort to promptly explore appropriate avenues relevant to the case, and develop a defense strategy with evidence to support it. We Investigate so that you can litigate.  

Call us today for a forensic case review and analysis.

Toll Free:  1- 888-681-594141

“While the practitioners and academics are embroiled in a scientific debate over the most logically, mathematically, or reliably ‘correct’ or ‘accurate’ way to present forensic evidence, they often forget to stop and consider the consumer of this information – the fact-finder. While the goal of providing accurate and logically cohesive evidence is a laudable one, if juries cannot understand or appropriately apply the testimony that is given, then forensic science has not been effective, transparent, or ultimately useful to the trier of fact.”

“Juror comprehension of forensic expert testimony: a literature review and gap analysis.” FSI – Synergy; Vol 1 (2019), pp 24-34.

Fingerprints: The First ID

Fingerprints: The First ID
Fingerprints are the oldest and most accurate method of identifying individuals. No two people (not even identical twins) have the same fingerprints, and it is extremely easy for even the most accomplished criminals to leave incriminating fingerprints at the scene of a crime

Each fingerprint has a unique set of ridges and points that can be seen and identified by trained experts. If two fingerprints are compared and one has a point not seen on the other, those fingerprints are considered different. If there are only matching points and no differences, the fingerprints can be deemed identical. (There is no set number of points required, but the more points, the stronger the identification. Fingerprints can be visible or latent; latent fingerprints can often be seen with special ultraviolet lights, although on some surfaces a simple flashlight will identify the print. Experts use fingerprint powder or chemicals to set a print; they then “lift” the print using special adhesives.

The pioneer in fingerprint identification was Sir Francis Galton, an anthropologist by training, who was the first to show scientifically how fingerprints could be used to identify individuals. Beginning in the 1880s, Galton (a cousin of Charles Darwin) studied fingerprints to seek out hereditary traits. He determined through his studies not only that no two fingerprints are exactly alike, but also that fingerprints remain constant throughout an individual’s lifetime. Galton published a book on his findings in 1892 in which he listed the three most common fingerprint types: loop, whorl, and arch. These classifications are still used today


remains within the system for up to 7 days after administration. It is important that it is specifically requested that they do the tests for drugs otherwise it will be missed.
• Rohypnol takes effect within 20-30 minutes of administration and lasts up to eight hours.
• It acts as a sedative by inducing amnesia, relaxing the muscles, and slowing down psychomotor responses.
• If combined with alcohol, Rohypnol can increase the feeling of drunkenness and lower inhibitions.
Ketamine Hydrochloride
What is it?
• A legal drug sold as a veterinary sedative or hospital grade anaesthesia
• When used in humans the drug acts as a dissociative anaesthesia – leaving the user vaguely aware of, but comfortably detached from all bodily sensations
What are the effects?
• Delirium, Vivid hallucinations, Cardiac excitement, Mild respiratory depression, Confusion, Irrationality, Violent or aggressive behavior, Vertigo, Slurred speech, Delayed reaction time, Euphoria, Altered body image, Coma
How quickly does it affect and then leave the system?
• This depends on how it is ingested
• When taken orally or nasally the effects take 10-20 mins to be realised
• When taken intravenously the effects are instantaneous
• The effects last less then 3 hours and the drug is detectable in the system up to 48 hours after, depending on the method of ingestion
Gamma Hydroxy Butyrate (GHB)
What is it?
• Odourless, colourless liquid that acts on the central nervous system as a depressant/anaesthesia
What are the effects?
• Euphoria, Amnesia, Intoxication, Drowsiness, Dizziness, Nausea, Visual hallucinations
How quickly does it affect and then leave the system?
• The drug takes effect in 10-15 mins after ingestion
• The effects last for 3-6 hours when taken without alcohol, and 36-72 hours when mixed with alcohol or other drugs
• In high dosages – unconsciousness or even a coma can occur within 5 minutes