Fingerprints: The First ID

Fingerprints: The First ID
Fingerprints are the oldest and most accurate method of identifying individuals. No two people (not even identical twins) have the same fingerprints, and it is extremely easy for even the most accomplished criminals to leave incriminating fingerprints at the scene of a crime

Each fingerprint has a unique set of ridges and points that can be seen and identified by trained experts. If two fingerprints are compared and one has a point not seen on the other, those fingerprints are considered different. If there are only matching points and no differences, the fingerprints can be deemed identical. (There is no set number of points required, but the more points, the stronger the identification. Fingerprints can be visible or latent; latent fingerprints can often be seen with special ultraviolet lights, although on some surfaces a simple flashlight will identify the print. Experts use fingerprint powder or chemicals to set a print; they then “lift” the print using special adhesives.

The pioneer in fingerprint identification was Sir Francis Galton, an anthropologist by training, who was the first to show scientifically how fingerprints could be used to identify individuals. Beginning in the 1880s, Galton (a cousin of Charles Darwin) studied fingerprints to seek out hereditary traits. He determined through his studies not only that no two fingerprints are exactly alike, but also that fingerprints remain constant throughout an individual’s lifetime. Galton published a book on his findings in 1892 in which he listed the three most common fingerprint types: loop, whorl, and arch. These classifications are still used today

Rohypnol

Rohypnol
 
remains within the system for up to 7 days after administration. It is important that it is specifically requested that they do the tests for drugs otherwise it will be missed.
 
• Rohypnol takes effect within 20-30 minutes of administration and lasts up to eight hours.
 
• It acts as a sedative by inducing amnesia, relaxing the muscles, and slowing down psychomotor responses.
 
• If combined with alcohol, Rohypnol can increase the feeling of drunkenness and lower inhibitions.
Ketamine Hydrochloride
What is it?
 
• A legal drug sold as a veterinary sedative or hospital grade anaesthesia
 
• When used in humans the drug acts as a dissociative anaesthesia – leaving the user vaguely aware of, but comfortably detached from all bodily sensations
What are the effects?
 
• Delirium, Vivid hallucinations, Cardiac excitement, Mild respiratory depression, Confusion, Irrationality, Violent or aggressive behavior, Vertigo, Slurred speech, Delayed reaction time, Euphoria, Altered body image, Coma
How quickly does it affect and then leave the system?
 
• This depends on how it is ingested
 
• When taken orally or nasally the effects take 10-20 mins to be realised
 
• When taken intravenously the effects are instantaneous
 
• The effects last less then 3 hours and the drug is detectable in the system up to 48 hours after, depending on the method of ingestion
Gamma Hydroxy Butyrate (GHB)
What is it?
 
• Odourless, colourless liquid that acts on the central nervous system as a depressant/anaesthesia
What are the effects?
 
• Euphoria, Amnesia, Intoxication, Drowsiness, Dizziness, Nausea, Visual hallucinations
How quickly does it affect and then leave the system?
 
• The drug takes effect in 10-15 mins after ingestion
 
• The effects last for 3-6 hours when taken without alcohol, and 36-72 hours when mixed with alcohol or other drugs
 
• In high dosages – unconsciousness or even a coma can occur within 5 minutes